Metal Additive Manufacturing Techniques

Sheet lamination is a low-temperature procedure that may connect a variety of materials. This approach uses bonding, ultrasonic welding, or brazing to bind sheets of material together layer by layer to construct an object.

FREMONT, CA: Metal additive manufacturing methods are categorized according to the process used to combine the metal, including a binder, a heated nozzle, or lasers. Some of the most prevalent metal additive manufacturing techniques are listed here. The final printed part may be net-shape or near-net shape, depending on the technology used.

Laser-Based Powder Bed Additive

Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) techniques melt and fuse metal powder into a solid using either a laser or an electron beam. Electron Beam Melting (EBM), Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS), Selective Heat Sintering (SHS), and Selective Laser Melting(SLM)are some of the metal additive manufacturing processes used in this technology. SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) is another technology for sintering powdered materials that uses a laser as the power source. Polymers, rather than metals, are usually utilized in SLS.

Regardless of the method, all laser-based powder bed processes require the metal powder to be spread over prior layers, whether with a roller or a blade. Stainless steel, titanium, steel, aluminum, cobalt chrome, and copper are the most widely used metals in this additive process.

Sheet Lamination

Sheet lamination is a low-temperature procedure that may connect a variety of materials. This approach uses bonding, ultrasonic welding, or brazing to bind sheets of material together layer by layer to construct an object. Sheet lamination is typically used for visual and aesthetic models rather than structural models.

Metal Binder Jetting

A two-dimensional inkjet printer is similar to this metal additive manufacturing technology. Metal powders are blasted onto a build platform in either a continuous or drop-on-demand (DOD) technique to print items. A liquid binder is used to layer the powder together, creating the desired object. Parts that have just been printed are initially weak and require sintering and infiltration post-processing to reinforce them. The item can then be polished, or nickel or gold plated as an optional finishing technique. Removing any melting of metal particles, which can contribute to residual tensions, is one of the distinctive advantages of binder jetting. It is also one of the cheapest methods of metal additive fabrication.

Directed Energy Deposition

Directed Energy Deposition (DED) is a technique that uses a heated nozzle to deposit melted material—commonly titanium or cobalt chrome—onto a specific surface, where it solidifies. This approach, a more advanced 3D printing procedure, works as the name implies: a focused energy source, such as a laser or electron beam, is aimed at the construction material to melt it. At the same time, it is being deposited layer by layer. This technique is frequently used to repair or add material to existing constructions.

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